Kozhikode also known as Calicut, is a city in the state of Kerala in southern India on the Malabar coast. Kozhikode is the largest urban area in the state and 192nd largest urban area in the world. The city lies about 275 km west of Bangalore. The greater Calicut urban area in the Malabar coast is the hub of the ninth biggest urban area in the world and the second biggest in India after the greater Kolkata urban area, which constitute of the northern Kerala region or the Malabar coast
The city of Kozhikode is 410 kilometres (255 mi) north of the state capital Thiruvanathapuram . The geographical conditions of city area and suburban areas are similar to the other parts of the district falling in coastal and midland zones. A number of rivers originating from the Sahyadri run along the outer reaches of the city. These include the Chaliyar puzha, Kallayi puzha Korapuzha river, ponoor puzha (river), and Iravanjhi puzha. Of these, Kallai river that runs through the southern part of the city has been the most important culturally and historically for Kozhikode. The Kallai River has its origin in Cherikkulathur village. It is connected with Chaliyar on the south by a man-made canal. The river passes through Cherukulathur, Kovur, Olavanna, Manava and Kallai before finally joining the sea near Kozhikode. The length of the river is 22 kilometres (14 mi).
The Korapuzha river is formed by the confluence of the Agalapuzha with the Punnurpuzha, and it joins the sea at Elathur. The Agalapuzha is more or less a backwater while the Punnurpuzha originates from Arikkankunni. The total length of the river is 40 kilometres (25 mi). Panurpuzha is a tributary of Korapuzha. It passes through the northern boundary of the study area and joins to the sea. The river is perennial.
Canoly canal was built in 1848 to connect the Korapuzha river in the north to Kallayi river in the south. It functions as a drain to reduce flooding in the city during the rainy season and as a navigation channel.
A system of wetland (mangrove) forests pervade the city from Kallai river to Eranjikkal.
City buses are painted green.Kerala State Road Transport Corporation(KSRTC) runs regular services to many destinations in the state and to the neighbouring states. The city has three bus stands. All private buses to the suburban and nearby towns ply from the Palayam Bus Stand. Private buses to adjoining districts start from the Mofussil Bus Stand (also called New Bus Stand, one of the largest bus stands in Kerala) on Indira Gandhi Road (Mavoor Road). Buses operated by the KSRTC drive from the KSRTC bus stand on Indira Gandhi Road. KSRTC Bus Stand Kozhikode is the biggest bus stand in Kerala having a size of 36,036.47-meter squareThere are also KSRTC depots inThamarassery, Thottilpalam, Thiruvambady and Vatakarain the district.
Kozhikode railway station is the only A1 railway station in Palakkad railway division and it is situated in the Shoranur-Mangalore section. Today, Kozhikode is well connected by rail to cities like Thiruvananthapuram, Kochi, Kannur, Mangalore, Kollam, Palakkad, Coimbatore, Katpadi, Vellore, Chennai, Bangalore, Mumbai, New Delhi, Vijayawada, Visakhapatnam, and Hyderabad.
Calicut International Airport is 26 kilometres (16 mi) from the city at Karipur . Regular domestic services are operated to major Indian cities. There are frequent international flights to the Middle eastern air hubs like Dubai, Abu Dhabi, Salalah, Muscat, Dammam, Riyadh,Jeddah, Sharjah, Bahrain, Doha, and to domestic hubs Chennai, Bangalore, Mumbai and New Delhi,
Calicut has an intermediate port situated at Beypore which is handles the most amount of cargo and passenger traffic after Kochi Port.
A container ship anchored and unloaded for the first time in the port on April 2017, thus enhancing coastal shipping.
The city has a strong mercantile aspect. The main area of business was once Valiyangadi (Big Bazaar) near the railway station. As time progressed, it shifted to other parts of the city. These days, the commercial heart has moved to Mittai Theruvu (Sweetmeat Street or S. M. Street), a long street crammed with shops that sell everything from saris to cosmetics. It also houses restaurants and sweetmeat shops. Today, the city has multiple shopping malls. Focus Mall (the first shopping mall in Kerala), HiLITE Mall (the second largest mall in Kerala) and RP Mall are a few among them. Currently, new shopping malls are springing up all over the city. This has changed the consumer habits, shifting the centre of commerce from S. M. Street to these places. Abhinav Chemannur Mall is under construction.